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We believe that a true and comprehensive understanding of Islam would not be possible without careful recognition of the Prophetic Tradition and the Prophet's Household. And Allah is the Source of Strength.

Aaron is To Moses, Ali is To Muhammad

A very authentic hadith, narrated by tons of shia and sunni hadith and history books confirms that Hz Ali was To Hz Muhammad As Hz Haroon was to Hz Musa.

Narrated Ubaida: Ali said (to the people of 'Iraq), "Judge as you used to judge, for I hate differences (and I do my best ) till the people unite as one group, or I die as my companions have died." And narrated Sad that the Prophet said to 'Ali, "Will you not be pleased from this that you are to me like Aaron was to Moses?"
Sa'd reported Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying to 'Ali: Aren't you satisfied with being unto me what Aaron was unto Moses?
Sahih al-Bukhari, Arabic-English version, Traditions 5.56, 5.700
Sahih Muslim, Arabic, v4, pp 1870-71
Sunan Ibn Majah, p12
Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v1, p174
al-Khasa'is, by al-Nisa'i, pp 15-16
Mushkil al-Athar, by al-Tahawi, v2, p309

The authenticity of this hadith can neither be questioned, nor can it be doubted. The hadith implies that the Story of Moses, or Hz Musa was similar to that of Hz Muhammad, and the story of Aaron or Hz Haroon, was similar to that of Hz Ali. The relationship between Aaron and Moses was similar to that of Hz Ali and Hz Muhammad. After coming this far, I will go on to quote the Quranic stories of Moses and Aaron, and will compare it to Hz Muhammad and Hz Ali. This might give you some historical hints, flashbacks or answers to your queries. 

Haroon (as) was Musa (as)'s Brother (19:53), Vizier (20:29-36) and in his absence the Khalifa (7:142). And thus so was Ali (as).

And certainly We sent Musa with Our communications to Firon and his chiefs, so he said: Surely I am the messenger of the Lord of the worlds. But when he came to them with Our signs, lo! they laughed at them
Quran [43:46-47]

Remember the feast of Banu Hashim, when the Prophet Muhammad invited the tribe to Islam, they laughed at him and made fun of him....

Then we raised after them Musa with Our communications to Firon and his chiefs, but they disbelieved in them; consider then what was the end of the mischief makers. And Musa said: O Firon! surely I am a messenger from the Lord of the worlds: (I am) worthy of not saying anything about Allah except the truth: I have come to you indeed with clear proof from your Lord, therefore send with me the children of Israel. He said: If you have come with a sign, then bring it, if you are of the truthful ones. So he threw his rod, then lo! it was a clear serpent. And he drew forth his hand, and lo! it was white to the beholders.  The chiefs of Firon's people said: most surely this is an enchanter possessed of knowledge: 
Quran [7:103-109]

Interestingly, same was the case with Prophet Muhammad (SAW). The Meccans asked him to show miracles if he was the true prophet. The Holy Prophet divided the moon into two parts with the orders of his fingers, where the Meccans went away blaming Prophet Muhammad of sorcery.

Then did We send up after them Musa and Haroun to Firon and his chiefs with Our signs, but they showed pride and they were a guilty people. So when the truth came to them from Us they said: This is most surely clear enchantment! Musa said: Do you say (this) of the truth when it has come to you? Is it magic? And the magicians are not successful. They said: Have you come to us to turn us away from what we found our fathers upon, and (that) greatness in the land should be for you two? And we are not going to believe in you. And Firon said: Bring to me every skillful magician. And when the magicians came, Musa said to them: Cast down what you have to cast. So when they cast down, Musa said to them: What you have brought is deception; surely Allah will make it naught; surely Allah does not make the work of mischief-makers to thrive. And Allah will show the truth to be the truth by His words, though the guilty may be averse (to it). But none believed in Musa except the offspring of his people, on account of the fear of Firon and their chiefs, lest he should persecute them; and most surely Firon was lofty in the land; and most surely he was of the extravagant.
Quran [10:75-83]

We must note that Aaron accompanied Moses since the beginning of his prophetic mission. So did Hz Ali. Since the Feast of Banu Hashim, he accompanied the prophet and assisted him in his mission. The Kuffars of Mecca had been blaming Hz Muhammad for sorcery, rejecting his miracles.

He (Moses) said: O my Lord! Expand my breast for me, And make my affair easy to me, And loose the knot from my tongue, (That) they may understand my word; And give to me an (aider, Henchman, Minister) from my familyHaroun, my brotherStrengthen my back by him, And associate him (with me) in my affair, So that we should glorify Thee much, And remember Thee oft. Surely, Thou art seeing us. He said: You are indeed granted your petition, O Musa
Quran [20:25-36]

This is a crucial text. Musa asked for a helper from Allah. This helper would assist him in his mission. This helper would be from his family. He would be his minister, vizier, khalifa, brother and a prophet..... But the prophethood ended after Hz Muhammad, and Imamat started. The role of Imamat is to nourish Islam, spread it, protect it, defend it. Imam Ali could not attain the title of a prophet, but of an imam, a caliph, and the rightful vizier of prophet Muhammad. Thus we learn, Khilafat comes from Allah, and stays in the family.... *Hint*

You must also note that Allah is the mawla, protector and helper of everyone. Besides acknowledging it, Prophet Musa still asked for his brother to be associated with him to help him!

So he brought forth for them a calf, a (mere) body, which had a mooing sound, so they said: This is your god and the god of Musa, but he forgot. What! could they not see that it did not return to them a reply, and (that) it did not control any harm or benefit for them? And certainly Haroun had said to them before: O my people! you are only tried by it, and surely your Lord is the Beneficent Allah, therefore follow me and obey my order. They said: We will by no means cease to keep to its worship until Musa returns to us.  (Musa) said: O Haroun! what prevented you, when you saw them going astray, So that you did not follow me? Did you then disobey my order? He said: O son of my mother! seize me not by my beard nor by my head; surely I was afraid lest you should say: You have caused a division among the children of Israel and not waited for my word.
Quran [20:88-94]

To shorten the episode, when Musa left for 40 days to communicate with Allah, his people started to worship a calf. Moses on his return was furious at Aaron who didnt stopped them from doing so. Aaron replied that he feared divisions. Similarly, after the demise of Prophet Muhammad when he left this world to meet Allah, Hz Ali was the lawful Caliph/Imam/Vizier. People disobeyed him and his orders, objecting his right to khilafat and usurping the property. Sunnis question, why didnt Hz Ali Asked for his rights?

And certainly Haroun had said to them before: O my people! you are only tried by it, and surely your Lord is the Beneficent Allah, therefore follow me and obey my order. 
Quran [20:90]

He said: O son of my mother! seize me not by my beard nor by my head; surely I was afraid lest you should say: You have caused a division among the children of Israel and not waited for my word
Hopes this clearifies the matter.
Quran [20:94]

Unity was something which Imam Ali valued alot, which his foresight acknowledged at the early stages of Islam.

And certainly We gave the Book to Musa, so be not in doubt concerning the receiving of it, and We made it a guide for the children of Israel.  And We made of them Imams (leaders) to guide by Our command when they were patient, and they were certain of Our communications. Surely your Lord will judge between them on the day of resurrection concerning that wherein they differ. 
Quran [32:23-25]

And most certainly We gave Musa the Book and We sent messengers after him one after another; and We gave Isa, the son of Marium, clear arguments and strengthened him with the holy spirit, What! whenever then a messenger came to you with that which your souls did not desire, you were insolent so you called some liars and some you slew. And they say: Our hearts are covered. Nay, Allah has cursed them on account of their unbelief; so little it is that they believe. 
Quran [2:87-88]

The progeny of Moses produced Imams/Prophets/Leaders to guide mankind. Similarly, the progeny of Muhammad bore 12 Imams, whose duty is the same. And a very interesting prospective is the mentioning of Jesus... as Imam Mahdi's disappearance and reappearance before the resurrection is similar to that of Jesus.....

And when Musa said to his people: O my people! why do you give me trouble? And you know indeed that I am Allah's messenger to you; but when they turned aside, Allah made their hearts turn aside, and Allah does not guide the transgressing people.
Quran [61:005]

And of Musa's people was a party who guided (people) with the truth, and thereby did they do justice. 
Quran [7:159]

Notice that not all of the companions/people of Moses were truthful, righteous and the guided ones. There were factions among them. I assume, similar was the case with Prophet Muhammad?

Peace be on Musa and Haroun.
Quran [37:120]

AllahHuma SalehAllah Muhammad Wa Aale Muhammad.

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