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We believe that a true and comprehensive understanding of Islam would not be possible without careful recognition of the Prophetic Tradition and the Prophet's Household. And Allah is the Source of Strength.

Prophet (SAW) At War

I still remember when i was in Class 9 preparing for my O Levels exam for Islamiat, our teacher read from Cambridge and other local syllabus books, how the tribes of Banu Nazir and Banu Qaynuqa were expelled from Medina on account of their violation of the treaty with Muslims of Medina, and how Banu Qurayza were executed, upto 900 of their men (including pubescent boys) including one woman.

The event is recorded by many Sunni historians as well;

The biographers of the Prophet, followed by later historians, tell us that BanQ
Qaynuqa and later Banu al-Na^ir, provoked the Muslims, were besieged, and in turn
agreed to surrender and were allowed to depart, taking with them all their transportable
possessions. Later on Khaybar and Fadak were evacuated. According to Ibn Ishaq in the
Sira,the third of the Jewish tribes, Banu Qurayza, sided with the Qurashites and their
allies, who made an unsuccessful attack on Medina in an attempt to destroy Islam. This,
the most serious challenge to Islam, failed, and the Banu Qurayza were in turn besieged by
the Prophet. Like Banu al-Nadir, in time they surrendered, but unlike the Banu al-NaJIr,
they were subjected to the arbitration of Sa'd b. Mu'adh, a member of the Aws tribe, allies
of Qurayza. He ruled that the grown-up males should be put to death and the women and children subjected to slavery. Consequently, trenches were dug in the market-place in Medina, and the men of Qurayza were brought out in groups and their necks were struck. Estimates of those killed vary from 400 to 900.
Ibn Ishaq, Sira (ed. Wustenfeld, Gottingen, 1860), 545-7; (ed. Saqqa et al., Cairo, 1955), II, 47-9.

Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin: No woman of Banu Qurayzah was killed except one. She was with me, talking and laughing on her back and belly (extremely), while the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) was killing her people with the swords. Suddenly a man called her name: Where is so-and-so? She said: I I asked: What is the matter with you? She said: I did a new act. She said: The man took her and beheaded her. She said: I will not forget that she was laughing extremely although she knew that she would be killed.
Sunan Abu Dawud, Book 14, Number 2665

Back then it did not bother me much, but as I grew up, I realized how important such events were in grooming our faith and beliefs, and thus their true scrutiny in the lights of facts was necessary. If the Prophet (SAW) could ruthlessly kill a complete tribe irrespective that the whole clan did not participate in the "uprising", that too against the precedence he (SAW) himself had set with the expulsion (and not termination) of Banu Nazir and Qaynuqa, it gives fair boost to the Jihadis who are operating globally in the name of Islam. Such traditions and events have not only made the Prophet's (SAW) personality controversial, but attacks our faith even if we do not perceive it, because our acceptance of such events being certified by the Prophet (SAW) himself governs our outlook of life.

We had earlier stated how Prophet's (SAW) character assassination has been done, willfully or in naive, by Muslim historians and scholars themselves when they propagated the event of Satanic verses

His title is satanic verses. But do you know what is the title derived from? What is the actual "Satanic Verses"?

And We did not send before you any messenger or prophet, but when he desired, the Satan made a suggestion respecting his desire; but Allah annuls that which the Satan casts, then does Allah establish His communications, and Allah is Knowing, Wise,
Quran [22:52]

Sunni commentators, al-Wāqidī, Ibn Sa'd, al-Tabarī, and Ibn Ishaq, ibne Kathir etc narrate a story. The story is, that when some people migrated to Abyssinia, Rasool (SAW) was preaching in Mecca, and to the idol worshippers, he said, "Have you thought of Allāt and al-'Uzzā and Manāt the third, the other? These are the exalted Gharaniq, whose intercession is hoped for.”

Allat, uzza etc were idols, and the prophet (SAW) said that their intercession is accepted. This made all the idol worshippers very happy and they accepted Rasool (SAW) and people started to return from Abyssinia! Afterwards, Gabriel (AS) came to prophet, and told him that the above thing which Rasool (SAW) said, was not a message from Allah, but Satan whispered it in the ears of Rasool (SAW), and he (SAW) mistook it for Gabriel (AS) and thus revealed the above “satanic verse” as the part of Quran. Then Jibrael (AS) revealed 22:52 and abolished the command which Muhammad (SAW) gave initially, thinking it to be a revelation.

At this point many of the scholars of Tafsir mentioned the story of the Gharaniq and how many of those who had migrated to Ethiopia came back when they thought that the idolaters of the Quraysh had become Muslims, but these reports all come through Mursal chains of narration and I do not think that any of them may be regarded as Sahih. And Allah knows best. Al-Bukhari said, "Ibn `Abbas said, in his recitation (of the revelation).) "When he spoke, the Shaytan threw (some falsehood) into his speech, but Allah abolished that which the Shaytan threw in.'' (Then Allah establishes His revelations.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, (when he did recite (the revelation), Shaytan threw (some falsehood) in it) "When he spoke, the Shaytan threw (some falsehood) into his speech.'' Mujahid said: (when he did recite) "When he spoke.'' It was said that it refers to his recitation, whereas (but they trust upon Amani) means they speak but they do not write. Al-Baghawi and the majority of the scholars of Tafsir said (he did recite) "Reciting the Book of Allah.'' (Shaytan threw (some falsehood) in it) "In his recitation.'' Ad-Dahhak said: (when he did recite) "When he recited.'' Ibn Jarir said, "This comment is more akin to interpretation.'' (But Yansakh Allah that which Shaytan throws in.) The meaning of the word Naskh in Arabic is to remove or lift away. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "This means, Allah cancels out that which the Shaytan throws in.''
Tafseer Ibne Kathir, Tafseer of Surah 22, Verse 52; Entitled "How the Shaytan threw some Falsehood into the Words of the Messengers, and how Allah abolished that"

This is how they interpret this above verse. Do you know what It means? That the prophet revealed verses of Quran from shaitaan at times (God Forbid) and not Gabriel. It was later that those verses were abrogated!

Shall I inform you (of him) upon whom the Shaitans descend? They descend upon every lying, sinful one, They incline their ears, and most of them are liars. And as to the poets, those who go astray follow them.
Quran [26:221-224]

Wahabis and nasibis have made a joke out of the prophethood of Muhammad (SAW), just to prove that Muhammad (SAW) was like them, a normal fallible human being. Was Muhammad (SAW) a poet, and not a prophet? >> Mail Box >> Letter Exchange 9: Ahadith and Prophet's character Assassination, from Shaq al Sadr to the Satanic Verses

If Prophet Muhammad (SAW), the Rehmat Al Aalimeen could certify the beheading of 900 men and boys in a market place, who had surrendered, then frankly, it justifies the revenge they had sought from the progeny of Muhammad (SAW) at Kerbala.

And We have not sent you (O Muhammad) but as a mercy to the worlds.
Quran [21:107]

While some Muslim historians have propagated all sorts of event and Ahadith on the authority of Prophet Muhammad (SAW), without proper due diligence and filtration, which hurt the infallibility of Prophet Muhammad (SAW), and these they have now formed a part of our basic faith element and creed, the "infidel" have done more work to defend the honor of Prophet Muhammad (SAW).

My father sent me a White Paper on the event of Banu Qurayza. Published by the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, yes Great Britain, and not Saudia Arabia or Iran or even Pakistan who are busy "terminating" the infidels, the paper by W. N. Arafat shows how the killing of Qurayza has been derived from Jewish traditions, sourced by Ibn Ishaq only and thus aims to spread propaganda against the Prophet of Islam.

W. N. Arafat examined details of the story and demonstrates that the assertion that 600 or 800 or 9007 men of Banu Qurayza were put to death in cold blood can not be true; that it is a later invention; and that it has its source in Jewish traditions.

So much for the sources: they were neither uninterested nor trustworthy; and the
report was very late in time. Now for the story. The reasons for rejecting the story are the following:

(i) As already stated above, the reference to the story in the Qur'an is extremely brief,
and there is no indication whatever of the killing of a large number. In a battle context the reference is to those who were actually fighting. The Qur'an is the only authority which the historian would accept without hesitation or doubt.
It is a contemporary text, and, for the most cogent reasons, what we have is the authentic version,

(ii) The rule in Islam is to punish only those who were responsible for the sedition,

(iii) To kill such a large number is diametrically opposed to the Islamic sense of justice and to the basic principles laid down in the Qur'an particularly the verse, "No soul shall bear another's burden." It is obvious in the story that the leaders were numbered and were well known. They were named,

(iv) It is also against the Qur'anic rule regarding prisoners of war, which is: either they
are to be granted their freedom or else they are to be allowed to be ransomed

(v) It is unlikely that the Banu Qurayza should be slaughtered when the other Jewish groups who surrendered before Banu Qurayza and after them were treated leniently and allowed to go. Indeed Abu 'Ubayd b. Sallam relates in his Kitdb al-amwdl that
when Khaybar fell to the Muslims there were among the residents a particular family
or clan who had distinguished themselves by excessive unseemly abuse of the Prophet. Yet in that hour the Prophet addressed them in words which are no more than a re buke: "Sons of Abu al-Huqayq (he said to them) I have known the extent of your hostility to God and to His apostle, yet that does not prevent me from treating you as I treated your brethren."
That was after the surrender of Banu Qurayza.

(vi) If indeed so many hundreds of people had actually been put to death in the market
place, and trenches were dug for the operation, it is very strange that there should be
no trace whatever of all that?no sign or word to point to the place, and no reference
to a visible mark.

(vii) Had this slaughter actually happened, jurists would have adopted it as a precedent.
In fact exactly the opposite has been the case. The attitude of jurists, and their rulings,
have been more according to the Qur'anic rule in the verse, "No soul shall bear
another's burden."

Indeed, Abu 'Ubayd b. Sallam relates a very significant incident in his book Kitdb
al-amwdl, which, it must be noted, is a book of jurisprudence, of law, not a sira or a
biography. He tells us that in the time of the Imam al-Awza there was a case of
trouble among a group of the People of the Book in the Lebanon when 'Abdullah b.
'AH was regional governor. He put down the sedition and ordered the community in
question to be moved elsewhere. Al-Awza'i in his capacity as the leading jurist immediately objected. His argument was that the incident was not the result of the community's unanimous agreement. "As far as I know (he argued) it is not a rule of God
that God should punish the many for the fault of the few but punish the few for the
fault of the many."

Now, had the Imam al-Awza'i accepted the story of the slaughter of Banu
Qurayza, he would have treated it as a precedent, and would not have come out with
an argument against Authority, represented in 'Abdullah b. 'Ali. Al-Awza'i, it should
be remembered, was a younger contemporary of Ibn Ishaq.

(viii) In the story of Qurayza a few specific persons were named as having been put to death, some of whom were described as particularly active in their hostility. It is the reasonable conclusion that those were the ones who led the sedition and who were consequently punished not the whole tribe.

(ix) The details given in the story clearly and of necessity imply inside knowledge, i.e. from among the Jews themselves. Such are the details of their consultation when they were besieged, the harangue of Ka'b b. Asad as their leader: and the suggestion that
they should kill their women and children and then make a last desperate attack
against the Muslims.

(x) Just as the descendants of Qurayza would want to glorify their ancestors, so did the
descendants of the Madanese connected with the event. One notices that that part of
the story which concerned the judgement of Sa'd b. Mu'adh against Qurayza was
transmitted from one of his direct descendants. According to this part the Prophet
said to Mu'adh: "You have pronounced God's judgement upon them [as inspired]
through Seven Veils." Now it is well known that for the purposes of glorifying their ancestors or white washing those who were inimical to Islam at the beginning, many stories were invented by later generations and a vast amount of verse was forged, much of which was transmitted by Ibn Ishaq. The story and the statement concerning Sa'd are one such detail.

(xi) Other details are difficult to accept. How could so many hundreds of persons be
incarcerated in the house belonging to a woman of Banu al-Najjar?

(xii) The history of the Jewish tribes after the establishment of Islam is not really clear at
all. The idea that they all departed on the spot seems to be in need of revision, as can
be seen on examining the sources. For example, in his Jamharat al-ansdb, Ibn Hazm
occasionally refers to Jews still living in Medina. In two places al-Waqidi mentions
Jews who were still in Medina when the Prophet prepared to march against Khaybar?
i.e. after the supposed liquidation of all three tribes, including Qurayza. In one case
ten Madanese Jews actually joined the Prophet in an excursion to Khaybar, and in
the other the Jews who had made their peace with him in Medina were extremely
worried when he prepared to attack Khaybar. Al-Waqadi explains that they tried to
prevent the departure of any Muslim who owed them money.
Indeed Ibn Kathir takes the trouble to point out that 'Umar expelled only those Jews of Khaybar who had not made a peace agreement with the Prophet. Ibn Kathir then proceeds to explain that at a much later date, i.e. after the year 300 a.h., the Jews of Khaybar claimed that they had in their possession a document allegedly given them by the Prophet which exempted them from poll-tax. He said that some scholars were taken in by this document so that they ruled that the Jews of Khaybar should be exempted. However, that was a forged letter and had been refuted in detail. It quoted persons who were already dead, it used technical terms which came into being at a later time, it claimed that Mu'awiya b. Abi Sufyan witnessed it, when in fact he had not even been converted to Islam at that time, and so on. So then the real source of this unacceptable story of slaughter was the descendants of the Jews of Medina, from whom Ibn Ishaq took these "odd tales". For doing so Ibn Ishaq was severely criticized by other scholars and historians and was called by Malik an impostor.

However, the story, in my view, has its origins in earlier events. It can be shown that it reproduces similar stories which survived from the account of the Jewish rebellion against the Romans, which ended in the destruction of the temple in the year a.d. 73, the flight of the Jewish zealots and sicarii to the rock fortress of Masada, and the final liquidation of the besieged. Stories of their experience were naturally transmitted by Jewish survivors who fled south. Indeed one of the more plausible theories of the origin of the Jews of Medina is that they came after the Jewish wars. This was the theory preferred by the late Professor Guillaume.

As is well known, the source of the details of the Jewish wars is Flavius Josephus, him
self a Jew and a contemporary witness who held office under the Romans, who disapproved
of certain actions which some of the rebels committed, but who nevertheless never ceased
to be a Jew at heart. It is in his writings that we read of details which are closely similar
to those transmitted to us in the Sira about the actions and the resistance of the Jews, except that now we see the responsibility for the actions placed on the Muslims. In considering details of the story of Banu Qurayza as told by the descendants of that
tribe, we may note the following similar details in the account of Josephus

(i) According to Josephus, Alexander, who ruled in Jerusalem before Herod the Great,
hung upon crosses 800 Jewish captives, and slaughtered their wives and children before
their eyes,

(ii) Similarly, large numbers were killed by others,

(iii) Important details of the two stories are remarkably similar, particularly the numbers of those killed. At Masada the number of those who died at the end was 960. The hot-headed sicarii who were eventually also killed numbered 600. We also read that when they reached the point of despair they were addressed by their leader Eleazar (precisely as Ka*b b. Asad addressed the Banu Qurayza), who suggested to them the killing of their women and children. At the ultimate point of complete despair the plan of killing each other to the last man was proposed. Clearly the similarity of details is most striking. Not only are the suggestions of mass suicide similar but even the numbers are almost the same. Even the same names occur in both accounts. There is Phineas, and Azar b. Azar,just as Eleazar addressed the Jews besieged in Masada.

There is, indeed, more than a mere similarity. Here we have the prototype indeed, I
would suggest, the origin of the story of Banu Qurayza, preserved by descendants of the
Jews who fled south to Arabia after the Jewish Wars, just as Josephus recorded the same
story for the Classical world. A later generation of these descendants superimposed details
of the siege of Masada on the story of the siege of Banu Qurayza, perhaps by confusing a
tradition of their distant past with one from their less remote history. The mixture provided
Ibn Ishaq's story. When Muslim historians ignored it or transmitted it without comment
or with cold lack of interest, they only expressed lack of enthusiasm for a strange tale, as
Ibn Hajar called it.

One last point. Since the above was first written, I have seen reports of a paper given
in August 1973 at the World Congress of Jewish Studies by Dr. Trude Weiss-Rosmarin, in
which she challenges Josephus' assertion that 960 besieged Jews committed suicide at
Masada. This is highly interesting since in the story of Qurayza the 960 or so Jews refused
to commit suicide. Who knows, perhaps the story of Banu Qurayza is an even more accurate form of the original version.
New Light on the Story of Banū Qurayẓa and the Jews of Medina
Author(s): W. N. Arafat
Source: Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, No. 2 (1976), pp.
Published by: Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland

This as you can see, is the gap between a school book, main stream ahadith book, and some research put in by a British Society, and the stark gap in terms of intellectual assessment, substantial knowledge base and attitude towards the life and character of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) can be seen.

He (SAW) was of the highest morality.

Noon (ink). I swear by the pen and what the angels write, By the grace of your Lord you (Muhammad) are not mad. And most surely you shall have a reward never to be cut off.
And most surely you conform (yourself) to sublime morality. So you shall see, and they (disbelievers) too shall see, Which of you is afflicted with madness.
Quran [68:1-6]

We Muslims, have a right on us owed to our faith in the Quran, to reject all traditions attributed to Prophet Muhammad (SAW), which are anything short of sublime moral values, for accepting such traditions will blemish our faith in Tauheed indirectly. 

The Prophet (SAW) lead approximately 19 ghazwats, and some traditions quote the number 23 as well as 27.

Narrated Abu Ishaq: Once, while I was sitting beside Zaid bin Al-Arqam, he was asked, "How many Ghazwat did the Prophet undertake?" Zaid replied, "Nineteen." They said, "In how many Ghazwat did you join him?" He replied, "Seventeen." I asked, "Which of these was the first?" He replied, "Al-'Ashira or Al-'Ashiru."
Sahih Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 59, Number 285

Muhammad (SAW) was a man, who had kept his duty of prophet hood before his own self and nafs. He (SAW) lived for Allah and he did everything for Allah. His (SAW) migration was for Allah and his (SAW) war was for Allah. It is therefore no doubt, that any opposition to the Prophet (SAW) was open opposition to Allah himself.

Surely those who disbelieve and turn away from Allah's way and oppose the
Messenger after that guidance has become clear to them cannot harm Allah in any way, and He will make null their deeds.

Quran [47:32]

Almost all of the battles Rasool (SAW) lead had two things common in them.

Firstly, they were not offensive or were not initiated by the Prophet (SAW). Many historians differ in this opinion, but the major ghazwats were defensive. Badr, Uhud and Khayber were defensive. Muta was a result of murder of ambassador of Prophet Muhammad (SAW). Tabuk if had been offensive, would have resulted in a battle, but was more of a deterrent and thus the battle did not take place.

Secondly, Prophet Muhammad (SAW) did not participate in any of the battles, in terms of killing the kuffar with his own sword. This was peculiar given that he (SAW) was an excellent exemplar for all of us and his companions.

Certainly you have in the Messenger of Allah an excellent exemplar for him who
hopes in Allah and the latter day and remembers Allah much.

Quran [33:21]

It was the Rehmat of Muhammad (SAW) which shadowed this fact, that he did not kill. However, it also brings us to the other point, that the participation of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) was ensured by always bringing forward his near of kith and kin in all the battles. Hz Hamzah (RA), Mawla Ali (AS) and Jaffar Tayyar (RA) were always the first line of defense for the Muslims.

In Mawla Ali's own words;

A party of Muhajirs met martyrdom. They were killed in the cause of Islam and Allah. everyone of them was blessed by Allah with a status and rank. Out of them those who belonged to my family and tribe, Bani Hashim, were granted an excellent status by Allah. Hamza (the uncle of the Holy Prophet (s) and Imam Ali (a)) received the title of Chief of Martyrs (Sayyid al-Shuhada). The Holy Prophet (s) himself called him by this name after his martyrdom and at his funeral ceremony. The Holy Prophet (s) recited Takbir ('Allahu Akbar') seventy times as a mark of distinction for him, which is not for any other Muslim. Some Muhajirs lost their hands in the battlefield but when one of us (Ja'far, cousin of the Holy Prophet (s) and brother of Imam Ali (a)) lost both of his hands and died in the battlefield, Allah granted him angelic wings and the Holy Prophet (s) informed us that this martyr received the title of Tayyar (one who flies in Paradise). If Allah had not disapproved man's habit of eulogizing and praising himself, I would have given several such instances which speak of the enhancement of my prestige and status before Allah, instances which are accepted and can be testified by faithful Muslims about which the hearers will have no reason to doubt. Do not be like a man whom the Devil has laid astray. Accept the obvious truth when it faces you....
Nahjul Balaga, Letter 28, A reply by Imam Ali to the letter sent by Mawiya

Imam Ali (AS) was hailed to the world as Nafs Ur Rasool, when the Prophet (SAW) took him (AS) to Mubahila as per orders of the Quran;

But whoever disputes with you in this matter after what has come to you of
knowledge, then say: Come let us call our sons and your sons and our women and your
women and our near people and your near people, then let us be earnest in prayer, and
pray for the curse of Allah on the liars.
Quran [3:61]

Many Muslim scholars, commentators and traditionists whom the Ummah acclaim with one voice, have given the details of this event with following conclusions: The seriousness of the occasion demanded absolute purity, physical as well as spiritual, to take part in the fateful event. Only the best of Allah's creations (the Ahl ul Bayt) were selected by the Holy Prophet under Allah's guidance. It, beyond all doubts, established the purity, the truthfulness and the sublime holiness of the Ahl ul Bayt. It also unquestionably confirmed as to who were the members of the family of the Holy Prophet.

The word anfus is the plural of nafs which means soul or self. When used in relation to an individual, it implies another being of the same identity with complete unity in equality; therefore, one is the true reflection of the other in thought, action and status, to the extent that at any occasion or for any purpose, any one of them can represent the other. Even if the word nafs is interpreted as "the people", it is clear that Ali alone is "the people" of the Holy Prophet. ....

Even Ibna Hazm, a staunch advocate of the Umayyid point of view, has stated that at the time of mubahilah, only Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn came out with the Holy Prophet to take part in the contest.  ......

The word anfusana (plural of nafs) is used here with reference to the Holy Prophet who summons his "selves" for the spiritual contest. Whoever is identical, physically and spiritually, with the Holy Prophet, is his self or soul. No living being, human or celestial, has ever been exalted to this highest distinction save Ali ibna abi Talib. Whenever the Holy Prophet said something about his companions he did not mention the name of Ali. If asked, "What about Ali?" he used to reply: "You asked about the people, you did not ask about my nafs"
Once he told Burayda: "O Burayda, do not oppose Ali, verily, he is of me and I am of him. I and Ali are from the one and the same source, whereas all other people belong to different roots." At the time of sending Ali to preach the first verses of surah al Barat, after cancelling the assignment given to Abu Bakr, the Holy Prophet had told the astonished companions: "I have been commanded by Allah that either I should deliver these verses or he, who is from me and I from him, should be entrusted to recite them to the people."

Commentary of Aqa Mahdi Puya, Tafsir of Surah 3, Verse 61

It was therefore percievd, that the bravery of Ali (AS) was the bravery of the Prophet (SAW) himself, and the strike of Imam Ali (AS) was the strike of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) himself.

Prophet's (SAW) roles in the battlefield was not only to strategize, but also to motive the companions (RA) to join him for a cause which required firmness in faith. And it was due to the presence of the Prophet (SAW), that despite being heavily out numbered in many of the ghazwats, Allah's help came, sometimes in the form of angels, some time in the form of rain and heavy winds, and some times in the form of bravery of the Prophet (SAW).

Even as your Lord caused you to go forth from your house with the truth, though a
party of the believers were surely averse; They disputed with you about the truth after it had become clear, (and they went forth) as if they were being driven to death while they saw (it). And when Allah promised you one of the two parties that it shall be yours and you loved that the one not armed should be yours and Allah desired to manifest the truth of what was true by His words and to cut off the root of the unbelievers. That He may manifest the truth of what was true and show the falsehood of what was false, though the guilty disliked. When you sought aid from your Lord, so He answered you: I will assist you with a thousand of the angels following one another. And Allah only gave it as a good news and that your hearts might be at ease thereby; and victory is only from Allah; surely Allah is Mighty, Wise. When He caused calm to fall on you as a security from Him and sent down upon you water from the cloud that He might thereby purify you, and take away from you the uncleanness of the Shaitan, and that He might fortify your hearts and steady (your) footsteps thereby. When your Lord revealed to the angels: I am with you, therefore make firm those who believe. I will cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieve. Therefore strike off their heads and strike off every fingertip of them. This is because they acted adversely to Allah and His Messenger; and whoever acts adversely to Allah and His Messenger-- then surely Allah is severe in requiting (evil). This-- taste it, and (know) that for the unbelievers is the chastisement of fire. O you who believe! when you meet those who disbelieve marching for war, then turn not your backs to them. And whoever shall turn his back to them on that day-- unless he turn aside for the sake of fighting or withdraws to a company-- then he, indeed, becomes deserving of Allah's wrath, and his abode is hell; and an evil destination shall it be. So you did not slay them, but it was Allah Who slew them, and you did not smite when you smote (the enemy), but it was Allah Who smote, and that He might confer upon the believers a good gift from Himself; surely Allah is Hearing, Knowing. This, and that Allah is the weakener of the struggle of the unbelievers. If you demanded a judgment, the judgment has then indeed come to you; and if you desist, it will be better for you; and if you turn back (to fight), We (too) shall turn back, and your forces shall avail you nothing, though they may be many, and (know) that Allah is with the believers.
Quran [8:5-19] 

The victory at Badr was a reply to the Prophet's (SAW) prayers, who had prayed that if that group of Muslims had perished, none would have remain to worship Allah on this earth. The army of Muhammad (SAW) was strengthened by Allah and the outcome of the battle is well known. The kuffars had lost Abu Jahl.

Allah had strengthened the believers and thus victory was achieved.

At Uhud, the trial of the believers was at its peak.

And certainly Allah made good to you His promise when you slew them by His
permission, until when you became weak-hearted and disputed about the affair and
disobeyed after He had shown you that which you loved (Spoils of war);
of you were some who desired this world and of you were some who desired the hereafter; then He turned you away from them that He might try you; and He has certainly pardoned you,
and Allah is Gracious to the believers. When you ran off precipitately and did not wait for any one, and the Messenger was calling you from your rear, so He gave you another sorrow instead of (your) sorrow, so that you might not grieve at what had escaped you, nor (at) what befell you; and Allah is aware of what you do. Then after sorrow He sent down security upon you, a calm coming upon a party of you, and (there was) another party whom their own souls had rendered anxious; they entertained about Allah thoughts of ignorance quite unjustly, saying: We have no hand in the affair. Say: Surely the affair is wholly (in the hands) of Allah. They conceal within their souls what they would not reveal to you. They say: Had we any hand in the affair, we would not have been slain here. Say: Had you remained in your houses, those for whom slaughter was ordained would certainly have gone forth to the places where they would be slain, and that Allah might test what was in your breasts and that He might purge what was in your hearts; and Allah knows what is in the breasts. (As for) those of you who turned back on the day when the two armies met, only the Shaitan sought to cause them to make a slip on account of some deeds they had done, and certainly Allah has pardoned them; surely Allah is Forgiving, Forbearing. O you who believe! be not like those who disbelieve and say of their brethren when they travel in the earth or engage in fighting: Had they been with us, they would not have died and they would not have been slain; so Allah makes this to be an intense regret in their hearts; and Allah gives life and causes death and Allah sees what you do.
Quran [3:152-154]

It is important to know that at Uhud when the Shaitan created confusion, and the Prophet (SAW) also called and raised his voice for holding the grounds, each companion heard only one voice (of the Prophet (SAW) or of the cursed shaitaan) and thus reacted on what he had heard, and as per the Quran, they heard on account of what they had earlier done. This was the battle where many notable companions fled the Prophet (SAW). They were all forgiven for this account though. Imam Ali (AS) was amongst the handful (some resources say only 5 companions) who stayed back with the Prophet (SAW) and defended his life until others started to return

It was a challenge for the Prophet (SAW), to strategically over see the battles, while maintaining the decorum and faith of his companions (RA). The Prophet (SAW) participated with his troops as if they were equals, he (SAW) ate with them, and dug the trench with them.

Narrated Jabir: We were digging (the trench) on the day of (Al-Khandaq ( i.e. Trench )) and we came across a big solid rock. We went to the Prophet and said, "Here is a rock appearing across the trench." He said, "I am coming down." Then he got up, and a stone was tied to his belly for we had not eaten anything for three days. So the Prophet took the spade and struck the big solid rock and it became like sand. I said, "O Allah's Apostle! Allow me to go home." (When the Prophet allowed me) I said to my wife, "I saw the Prophet in a state that I cannot treat lightly. Have you got something (for him to eat?" She replied, "I have barley and a she goat." So I slaughtered the she-kid and she ground the barley; then we put the meat in the earthenware cooking pot. Then I came to the Prophet when the dough had become soft and fermented and (the meat in) the pot over the stone trivet had nearly been well-cooked, and said, "I have got a little food prepared, so get up O Allah's Apostle, you and one or two men along with you (for the food)." The Prophet asked, "How much is that food?" I told him about it. He said, "It is abundant and good. Tell your wife not to remove the earthenware pot from the fire and not to take out any bread from the oven till I reach there." Then he said (to all his companions), "Get up." So the Muhajirn (i.e. Emigrants) and the Ansar got up. When I came to my wife, I said, "Allah's Mercy be upon you! The Prophet came along with the Muhajirin and the Ansar and those who were present with them." She said, "Did the Prophet ask you (how much food you had)?" I replied, "Yes." Then the Prophet said, "Enter and do not throng." The Prophet started cutting the bread (into pieces) and put the cooked meat over it. He covered the earthenware pot and the oven whenever he took something out of them. He would give the food to his companions and take the meat out of the pot. He went on cutting the bread and scooping the meat (for his companions) till they all ate their fill, and even then, some food remained. Then the Prophet said (to my wife), "Eat and present to others as the people are struck with hunger."
Sahih Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 59, Number 427

When the pagans surrounded Medina in Khandaq, it was again down to the bravery of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) to rescue the day.

O you who believe! call to mind the favor of Allah to you when there came down
upon you hosts, so We sent against them a strong wind and hosts, that you saw not, and
Allah is Seeing what you do. When they (pagans) came upon you from above you and from below you, and when the eyes turned dull, and the hearts rose up to the throats, and you began to think diverse thoughts of Allah. There the believers were tried and they were shaken with severe shaking. And when the hypocrites and those in whose hearts was a disease began to say: Allah and His Messenger did not promise us (victory) but only to deceive. And when a party of them said: O people of Yasrib! there is no place to stand for you (here), therefore go back; and a party of them asked permission of the prophet, saying. Surely our houses are exposed; and they were not exposed; they only desired to fly away. And if an entry were made upon them from the outlying parts of it, then they were asked to wage war, they would certainly have done it, and they would not have
stayed in it but a little while. And certainly they (sahabis) had made a covenant with Allah before, that they would not turn (their) backs; and Allah's covenant shall be inquired of. Say: Flight shall not do you any good if you fly from death or slaughter, and in that case you will not be allowed to enjoy yourselves but a little. Say: Who is it that can withhold you from Allah if He intends to do you evil, rather He intends to show you mercy? And they will not find for themselves besides Allah any guardian or a helper. Allah knows indeed those among you who hinder others and those who say to their brethren: Come to us; and they come not to the fight but a little, Being niggardly with respect to you; but when fear comes, you will see them looking to you, their eyes rolling like one swooning because of death; but when the fear is gone they smite you with sharp tongues, being niggardly of the good things. These have not believed, therefore Allah has made their doing naught; and this is easy to Allah. They think the allies are not gone, and if the allies should come (again) they would fain be in the deserts with the desert Arabs asking for news about you, and if they were among you they would not fight save a little. Certainly you have in the Messenger of Allah an excellent exemplar for him who hopes in Allah and the latter day and remembers Allah much. And when the believers saw the allies, they said: This is what Allah and His Messenger promised us, and Allah and His Messenger spoke the truth; and it only increased them in faith and submission. Of the believers are men who are true to the covenant which they made with Allah: so of them is he who accomplished his vow, and of them is he who yet waits, and they have not changed in the least That Allah may reward the truthful for their truth, and punish the hypocrites if He please or turn to them (mercifully); surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. And Allah turned back the unbelievers in their rage; they did not obtain any advantage, and Allah sufficed the believers in fighting; and Allah is Strong, Mighty. And He drove down those of the followers of the Book (Jewish tribe of Banu Qurayza) who backed them (pagans) from their fortresses and He cast awe into their hearts; some you killed and you took captive another part. And He made you heirs to their land and their dwellings and their property, and (to) a land which you have not yet trodden, and Allah has power over all things.
Quran [33:9-27] 

When Medina was encircled by the pagans, the Muslims were frightened such that their hearts rose to their throat and they started to think diverse thoughts about Allah. When Amroo ibn Abd Wadd crossed the trench and started to abuse and invited Muslims to fight him and send him to hell or be killed and go to paradise, none rose other than Imam Ali (AS) and once again the bravery of Prophet Muhammad (SAW), the blood and brother of the Prophet (SAW) sent the enemy of the Prophet to hell.

After Hudabya, the Prophet (SAW) took to Khandaq only those companions (RA) who were present and had pledged at Hudabya.

Those who are left behind (during Hudaybiya) will say when you set forth for the
gaining of acquisitions: Allow us (that) we may follow you (to Khaybar). They desire to change the word of Allah. Say: By no means shall you follow us
; thus did Allah say before. But they will say: Nay! you are jealous of us. Nay! they do not understand but a little.
Quran [48:15]

One of the forts could not be conquered despite many attempts, and the Prophet (SAW) produced a flag which would lead to victory.

Narrated Sahl: On the day (of the battle) of Khaibar the Prophet said, "Tomorrow I will give the flag to somebody who will be given victory (by Allah) and who loves Allah and His Apostle and is loved by Allah and His Apostle." So, the people wondered all that night as to who would receive the flag and in the morning everyone hoped that he would be that person. Allah's Apostle asked, "Where is 'Ali?" He was told that 'Ali was suffering from eye-trouble, so he applied saliva to his eyes and invoked Allah to cure him. He at once got cured as if he had no ailment. The Prophet gave him the flag. 'Ali said, "Should I fight them till they become like us (i.e. Muslim)?" The Prophet said, "Go to them patiently and calmly till you enter the land. Then, invite them to Islam, and inform them what is enjoined upon them, for, by Allah, if Allah gives guidance to somebody through you, it is better for you than possessing red camels."
Sahih Bukhari Volume 4, Book 52, Number 253

Hunain was another calamity to be and as Maulana Maududi states in his Tafseer of the following Surahs, The Holy Prophet and a few of his bravest Companions, firmly stood their ground and rallied the routed army, and ultimately won the victory. It was because of
their perseverance that the army reassembled and the Muslims ultimately won the victory; otherwise they would have lost much more at Hunain than they had gained by the conquest of Makkah.

Certainly Allah helped you in many battlefields and on the day of Hunain, when
your great numbers made you vain, but they availed you nothing and the earth became strait to you notwithstanding its spaciousness, then you turned back retreating. Then Allah sent down His tranquillity upon His Messenger and upon the believers, and sent down hosts which you did not see
, and chastised those who disbelieved, and that is the reward of the unbelievers. Then will Allah after this turn (mercifully) to whom He pleases, and Allah is
Forgiving, Merciful.
Quran [9:25-27]

The Prophet (SAW) had to deal with all sorts of Companions. There were some more materialistic.

Narrated 'Abdullah: When the Prophet distribute the war booty of Hunain, a man from the Ansar said, "He (i.e. the Prophet), did not intend to please Allah in this distribution." So I came to the Prophet and informed him of that (statement) whereupon the color of his face changed and he said, "May Allah bestow His Mercy on Moses, for he was troubled with more than this, but he remained patient."
Sahih Bukhari Volume 5, Book 59, Number 624

The conquest of Mecca was such a secret mission that many of the Prophet's (SAW) close aides were also unaware of the conquest and they did not even know that the Prophet (SAW) was marching towards Mecca until he (SAW) entered Mecca.

And He (Allah) it is Who held back their (Meccans) hands from you and your
hands from them (preventing bloodshed) in the valley of Mecca after He had given you
victory (the treaty) over them; and Allah is Seeing what you do. It is they who disbelieved and turned you away from the Sacred Mosque and (turned off) the offering withheld from arriving at its destined place; and were it not for the believing men and the believing women (in Mecca under Taqiya), whom, not having known, you might have trodden down, and thus something hateful might have afflicted you on their account without knowledge-- so that Allah may cause to enter into His mercy whomsoever He pleases; had they been widely separated one from another, We would surely have punished those who disbelieved from among them with a painful punishment.
Quran [48:24-25]

Allah prevented bloodshed in Mecca by virtue of the strategy of Prophet (SAW), which included secrecy and strategizing in self-presentation. In times where a group of 10 men used to carry 1 torch, the Prophet (SAW) instructed each individual to hold a torch and thus when the Meccans saw from distant the number of torches marching towards them, the army was seen ten folds.

It is where Prophet (SAW) entered Mecca, and the same man blamed for killing 900 men in a market place (based on jewish traditions copied by Muslim historians without proper scrutiny), forgave the disbelievers who had troubled him for 13 years, forced him to leave his (SAW) birthplace and fought with him for 10 years.

With the aid of Imam Ali (AS), idols placed inside the Kaaba were broken. Naturally this job was to be done by the men who had never worshipped idols in since birth and the Prophet (SAW) successfully established the strength of the Muslim forces. 

I tried to separate Imam Ali (AS) for this article, but the fact remains that if the Wars of the Prophet (SAW) of Allah are to be mentioned, one cannot separate the representative of Muhammad (SAW) from these battles. Where the companions (RA) fled, Ali (AS) stood his ground, where the companions (RA) failed, Ali (AS) won the flag, where the Prophet (SAW) did not kill, Ali (AS) killed in his (SAW) name and in his (SAW) God's name.

It is funny, that the only one notable battle where Prophet (SAW) left behind Imam Ali (AS), was the battle of Tabuk. What is funny is, that the battle never happened.

Narrated Sad: Allah's Apostle set out for Tabuk. appointing 'Ali as his deputy (in Medina). 'Ali said, "Do you want to leave me with the children and women?" The Prophet said, "Will you not be pleased that you will be to me like Aaron to Moses? But there will be no prophet after me."
Sahih Bukhari Volume 5, Book 59, Number 700:

I see it as not only a coincidence, but as a strong message from destiny, that if fighting was ever ordained for the Prophet (SAW), it would always be through the hands of Ali (AS), and thus the title Yad Allah or Hand of God.

Maybe that is why Allama Iqbal craftily wrote that what is left in the story of Islam, other than the strike of Yad Allah, and the prostration of Sabbir (Imam Hussain (AS)).

Throughout his life, the Prophet (SAW) of Allah struggled, to achieve, with a group of men, who had converted and sometimes faltered at the hands of trial of faith. The army of Muhammad (SAW) fought with him (SAW) and laid down their life for the Prophet (SAW). But some groups at times had more desire for the bounty than for Islam, at times fled creating a chain reaction amongst the ranks and at times did not rise to challenge the call of the Kuffars. There were some notable companions of the Prophet (SAW), who under the stress of the situation, at times doubted the Prophet hood of Muhammad (SAW), let alone think adverse thoughts about Allah. To top it off, the ranks of Muhammad (SAW) included hypocrites as well blended in as Muslims, whose lethargy and doubts would give rise to a much more communal effect. Verily to accomplish with such a band what the Prophet (SAW) did accomplish, is nothing short of a miracle. The Prophet (SAW) compensated and made up for such gaps, by patience and tolerance and continuous forgiveness of his ranks, by group discussions and taking onboard all stake holders to give them sense of ownership, by maintaining secrecy at times, by commanding with great strategic insight. The Prophet (SAW) covered up by sacrificing his relatives, and by putting his closest in the first line of defense. The help of Allah brought victory to the Muslims ba Sadqa Muhammad (SAW).

The Prophet (SAW) forgave his enemies, freed the slaves after educating them and despite having the rights over slave girls, freed them before marrying them thus restoring their social status as the Ummuhat Ul Momineen. The sublime morality of the Prophet (SAW) was apparent in his strict attitude towards the kuffars who opposed Islam, and his leniency towards the Kuffars who engaged in peace treatise with him (SAW).

I purposely did not keep Imam Ali (AS) out of this article, because it would have done this article injustice. Furthermore, I wanted to point out, that many Muslim Factions after the demise of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) fought battles against Imam Ali (AS) and that too when he (AS) was appointed the Caliph by the Ummat. This Ali (AS), who had put his Zulfiqar in sheathe after the demise of Prophet (SAW), after serving the prophet (SAW) in every battle for 10 years, retired from the scene of Jihad for the next 27 years. It was this Ali (AS) who again unsheathe his sword in his old age, and our opinion about his enemies and his opponents say alot about our faith and our outlook of life.

The Messenger of Allah said: Loving Ali is the sign of belief, and hating Ali is the sign of hypocrisy.
Sahih Tirmidhi, volume 5, page 643
Sunan Ibn Majah, volume 1, page 142
Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal volume 1, pages 84,95,128
Tarikh al-Kabir, by al-Bukhari (the author of Sahih), v1, part 1, p202

Those who have done an unbiased scrutiny of historical accounts and ahadith, will undoubtedly agree that those who fought Imam Ali (AS), actually had waged war against the Prophet (SAW) himself, for Ali (AS) had been groomed since his birth, by the Prophet (SAW), to keep Islam above his personal gains and benefits. Thus if Ali (AS) did unsheathe his sword, it would only be to the account of safeguarding Islam.

Just like Mawla Ali (AS), his master's (SAW) self came after Islam and after safeguarding of the message of Allah. Prophet (SAW) did not fight for personal gain or glory. Those who went to war against the Prophet (SAW) are so unfortunate that they have ruined the purpose of their very creation.

News is, the Prophet (SAW) of Islam is still at war today;

O you who believe! Be careful of (your duty to) Allah and relinquish what remains (due) from usury, if you are believers. But if you do (it) not, then be apprised of war from Allah and His Messenger; and if you repent, then you shall have your capital; neither shall you make (the debtor) suffer loss, nor shall you be made to suffer loss.
Quran [2:278-279]

How many people today, and unfortunately, Muslims today, are at war against the Prophet (SAW), by virtue of their attachment to Usury, or by virtue of their Bughz e Ali (AS)?

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